From Knorre et al. (2024):
Source: Knorre et al. (2024).
From the paper:
First, overall public violent victimization of Asian-Americans fell shortly after the COVID-19 pandemic, in line with the fact that Asian-Americans spent more time at home during the early months of the pandemic. Second, focusing on incidents of inter-race public violence, there is evidence that, relative to other Americans, Asian-Americans became more likely to be victimized by both strangers and acquaintances as opposed to perpetrators who were family members or friends, after the pandemic began. This finding is consistent with the presence of more racially-motivated violence against Asian-Americans after the beginning of the COVID- 19 pandemic, accounting for reductions in time spent in public.
To see a different tabulation that highlights the correlation with Trump’s use of the term “China Virus”, see this post.